Too Deep for Words: A Theology of Liturgical Expression
This work by Schmit, associate professor of preaching at Fuller Theological Seminary, has the additional subtitle “The Power of Preaching, Prayer, and Ritual in Worship.” The book focuses on the aesthetic aspects of congregational worship.
The work consists of two parts. The first four chapters present the philosophical framework in which Schmit defines art as the creation of forms that are symbolic of human feeling in which God reveals Himself. Presentational language represents an art form with the capacity to express things too deep for words and to create resonance between people (chap. 1), and it is the primary vehicle to reveal the “hidden God” through careful preaching and worship leadership (chap. 2). Further the language of worship leadership with its intrinsic power “bind[s] the community together” and enacts the fulfillment of God’s promises with the unique capability to disclose God’s presence to the community (chap. 3), a phenomenon that occurs primarily through the pursuit of excellence (chap. 4). In chapters five through seven Schmit applies his aesthetic theory to the leadership of congregational worship in preaching, public prayer, and ritual action.
Schmit’s philosophy begins with the assumption that “the art we pour into worship is created not for God’s sake . . . [but] for the peoples’ sake” (pp. 65–66). Hence his understanding of the aesthetic is fundamentally anthropocentric and utilitarian. It exists not for the glory of God but as the means for believers to experience Him. Therefore the primary function of art, including all forms of oral communication, is “to stimulate the feelings and attitudes of the hearers. Therefore, the effort to communicate a concept (or information) is secondary” (p. 88). While both are necessary, the literal assertions of a sermon “play the part of harmony in relation to the artistic meaning of the work” (p. 89).
Schmit’s discussion of worship leadership through verbal and ritual language is stimulating and helpful for all facets of public pastoral leadership. It could have been drawn, however, from a more theocentric philosophy of aesthetics.
About the Contributors
Timothy J. Ralston
Dr. Ralston brings a rich pastoral background to his classroom, having served as an associate pastor and pastor in Ontario and as a director of adult education in the United States. Dr. Ralston is an active member in the North American Academy of Liturgy and the Evangelical Homiletics Society. His research in New Testament manuscripts and worship has taken him into a wide variety of settings and produced numerous scholarly articles. His teaching interests include preaching, worship, and spirituality. He is also an active Master Scuba Diving instructor and emergency first-response trainer. He and his wife, Carol, have two daughters and five grandchildren.